Heather Dubrow notes that the prevailing focus of literary scholarship was on "the study of ethical values and philosophical issues through literature, the tracing of literary history, and Literature was approached and literary scholarship did not focus on analysis of texts.
One of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fishwas himself trained by New Critics. In addition to the theme, the New Critics also looked for paradoxambiguityironyand tension to help establish the single best and most unified interpretation of the text.
Close reading or explication de texte was a staple of French literary studies, but in the United States, aesthetic concerns, and the study of modern poets was the province of non-academic essayists and book reviewers rather than serious scholars.
On the other hand, the literary appreciation school, which limited itself to pointing out the "beauties" and morally elevating qualities of the text, was disparaged by the New Critics as too subjective and emotional.
Formalism theory[ edit ] New Criticism developed as a reaction to the older philological and literary history schools of the US North, which, influenced by nineteenth-century German scholarship, focused on the history and meaning of individual words and their relation to foreign and ancient languages, comparative sources, and the biographical circumstances of the authors.
Other schools of critical theory, including, post-structuralismand deconstructionist theorythe New Historicismand Receptions studies followed. Condemning this as a version of Romanticism, they aimed for newer, systematic and objective method. Formal elements such as rhymemeter, settingcharacterizationand plot were used to identify the theme of the text.
Yet no one in his right mind could forget the reader. Although the New Criticism is no longer a dominant theoretical model in American universities, some of its methods like close reading are still fundamental tools of literary criticism, underpinning a number of subsequent theoretic approaches to literature including poststructuralism, deconstruction theory, and reader-response theory.
Though their interest in textual study initially met with resistance from older scholars, the methods of the New Critics rapidly predominated in American universities until challenged by Feminism and structuralism in the s.
Studying a passage of prose or poetry in New Critical style required careful, exacting scrutiny of the passage itself. These approaches, it was felt, tended to distract from the text and meaning of a poem and entirely neglect its aesthetic qualities in favor of teaching about external factors.
The New Criticism changed this. For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting. Although the New Critics were never a formal group, an important inspiration was the teaching of John Crowe Ransom of Vanderbilt Universitywhose students all SouthernersAllen TateCleanth Brooksand Robert Penn Warren would go on to develop the aesthetics that came to be known as the New Criticism.
Reader response is certainly worth studying.
This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory. Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay "Literature in the Reader" New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century.
It emphasized close reading, particularly of poetry, to discover how a work of literature functioned as a self-contained, self-referential aesthetic killarney10mile.com movement derived its name from John Crowe Ransom's book The New Criticism.
Expert Reviewed. How to Write a Critical Essay. Five Parts: Preparing to Write a Critical Essay Conducting Research Writing Your Essay Revising Your Essay Sample Essays Community Q&A A critical essay is an analysis of a text such as a book, film, article, or painting.
The goal of this type of paper is to offer a text or an interpretation of. Reading Harry Potter Again: New Critical Essays extends the discussion of the Harry Potter books by covering the entire series in one new and comprehensive volume.
This new volume of essays covers the entire seven-book sequence. Contributors consider a number of themes from a variety of perspectives. Lyrical and Critical Essays [Albert Camus, Philip Thody, Ellen Conroy Kennedy] on killarney10mile.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
“Here now, for the first time in a complete English translation, we have Camus’s three little volumes of essays.Download